What this skeleton told us: Evidence
An older man and 172 cm tall (5 feet 8 inches). Tooth decay and plaque are present on the teeth and there is an infected tooth root that has led to the loss of some bone in his jaw. There has been a fusion of the 3rd and 4th and 6th and 7th cervical (neck) vertebrae and degenerative changes are present in most other vertebrae. There are also degenerative changes on most of the joint surfaces and osteoarthritis in the left wrist bones. Two fractured (broken) right ribs at end of the ribs situated near the breast bone have healed but with little deformity. The front teeth have chips taken out of them and this may indicate use of the teeth as a tool.
Interpretation of the evidence
This older man shows clear evidence of degenerative changes to most of his joints, and osteoarthritis of one of his wrists. His fused neck vertebrae would have limited movement in that region of the spine. This is not surprising given his older age. The healed fractures are indicative of injury during his life, the ribs being broken as a result of a fall or a blow to the chest. His chipped front teeth would have been obvious, and his tooth root infection may have been painful. His enamel hypoplasia illustrates that in childhood he had a deficient diet or disease, and tooth decay indicates sugar in his diet.
Large sea monster.